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Posts posted by peedeers

  1. OK; sure, I understand that the dosing rate will not be very consistent. Thanks for your help.
    Incidentally, I read on the SeaChem website that their Reef Phytoplankton has a specific gravity between 1.0 to 1.1, but they don't say exactly what the salt content is. What I found more worrying is that it has a pH of 3.5 to 4.0.

    You only need to add small quantities everyday and you should be fine. Then the salinity or ph dont affect given overall water volume.

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  2. That's interesting. I didn't know that the phytoplankton products would raise salinity. Although I have to ask. If I'm dosing with a doser or by adding into an ATO, isn't the rise in salinity the same? I mean, in the end I'm going to put the same bottle of liquid phytoplankton into my tank.

    No its not the same.
    You dont have control over how much phyto you dose with an ato. It just depends on your rate of evaopration. On a hot day you dose more etc. dilution of that one bottle again depends on the size of your ato reservoir.

    With a doser you chose to dose 5 ml everyday for example...

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  3. OK, thanks for your answer. So then, what would happen if I put a UV sterilizer in my ATO? Would the water still go bad? It's just that it looks to me that a UV sterilizer and a small pump for circulation cost less than a doser.

    All marine phyto are grown and sold in saline water. So dosing using ATO will increase salinity and defeat the very purpose of an ATO.
    If you want to dose get a cheap doser.

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  4. I was just thinking about only doing a water change and not dosing anything and if I am right, this will bring the elements to lower level slowly.

    Example, let's say water is 100L and all elements is about 100 - just for easy calculation.

    After a week, the elements go to 90 and I do a water change 50% again for easy calculation.

    Now the old elements at 90 and new elements at 100 will average out to 95.

    So after a week and doing a water change the elements came down from 100 to 95.

    Of course in reality, this will be pretty slow but eventually it will add up, so a dosing will eventually require.

    What do you think?

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    Yes test for Alk usage for a week ( assuming weekly water change) If levels fall more than 0.5 dkh then think about dosing.

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  5. I qt corals for 76 days. So, it is needed.
    I know 76 days is a lot and many don't do it. But I prefer playing it safe

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    My question was not about whether you should qt or not. Why do you need to dose?

    Do you know what your daily Alk consumption is in dkh? If you dont know the answer you should not be dosing anything.

    Your fresh salt water mix at whatever salinity you desire ( say 1.026) should already provide adequate Alk, ca and mg levels. Lets say you use the red sea blue bucket salt - at 1.026, your alk should be around 8.5, ca around 420 and mg around 1350.

    Now if your daily tank dkh consumption is .2 dkh, then your Alk will fall from 8.5 to 8.3. So you add all for reef to make up for that deficit And keep it at 8.5. You should not be dosing to increase Alk from 8.5 to 8.7.

    Corals like parameters to be stable - consistently at the same levels and thats why you should dose to keep them at the same level. Not to icrease them.

    So unless you know what your daily Alk consumption is , do not dose anything.

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  6. On 4/8/2021 at 10:50 PM, JiaEn said:

    Nice write up! 

    It appears that ciliates are associated with many coral diseases. 

    But the question is,  are they the cause of the disease,  or are they just proliferates when the tissues become necrotic.  It could also be the case of increased pathogenic bacteria population at the disease coral,  which provides food for these bacteriaphagic ciliates 

    Great start for more discovery! 


    Great thread and post. We all know that viruses and bacteria exist on every coral. They actually make up the holobiont, but they are really separated from the coral tissue by the mucus layer. So it becomes a problem only when the mucus layer is breached due to some stressors. That gives pathogens access to the coral tissue which could then translate to RTN/STN.

    One of the things I am very keen to understand is how DOC ( especially from algal photosynthates) impacts this mucus breach given other stressors (temperature swings etc). So in a high DOC environment, due to increased bacterial activity around the coral, it could create an anoxic region. And this anoxic region could serve to host pathogens that thrive in this anoxic environment. Especially during night when o2 levels are lower - could explain why you sometimes see STN/RTN happen overnight. I think there has been some research around this - but not enough.

    Also keen to understand if there is a difference in the levels of DOC generated by micro versus macro algae. We often keep macros in chaeto reactors - so it may be important to understand how that the DOC they produce might affect the corals we want to keep.


  7. I think both of you are saying the same thing. People tend to perceive the skimmer as a mechanism to inject O2 into the water. Thats not true. A skimmer enables additional gas exchange so that the chemical potential of O2 or co2 in the air intake is same as that of the dissolved gases in the water. So it is tending towards equilibrium. So if O2 is higher in the intake air, then it will appear as though the skimmer is reducing DO in the water.

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    I meant if o2 is lower in the air intake.. in my last sentence.

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  8. I think both of you are saying the same thing. People tend to perceive the skimmer as a mechanism to inject O2 into the water. Thats not true. A skimmer enables additional gas exchange so that the chemical potential of O2 or co2 in the air intake is same as that of the dissolved gases in the water. So it is tending towards equilibrium. So if O2 is higher in the intake air, then it will appear as though the skimmer is reducing DO in the water.

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  9. If you have problem with PH first you need to check if the water in your tank is fully aerated. If the co2 in the surrounding air is high then even if your tank water is at equilibrium with the air outside, the levels of carbonic acid in the water will be high, which means more fre H+ leading to highe PH.
    This is rare in Singapore (unlike colder countries) we keep our windows open so the co2 levels in the air in your home should already be low (o.04 percent) almost.
    In this case if you scrub the co2 using media this will bring down carbonic acid in the tank but the effects maybe only temporary till the water attains equilibrium with the air.

    The other causes of ph being low is reapiration releasing co2 - eapecially at night. Or Co2 gas from your carx not diffusing into the air before getting into the tank. In thesr cases its is best to use calcium hydroxide ( kalkwasser) to supplement and remove exces co2 in the water.
    Also alkalinity being low can be a cause of low PH, but in a badly awrated tank you might need to drive alk upto over 12 to reacv PH levels of 8.3.

    So there is no straightforward answer as to whether co2 media has increases ph and by how much.

    Since you have never measured PH best is it to start with that before thinking about boosting.

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  10. I would avoid using the word trigger,  because they do not just "come into existence" once the organic phosphate reaches a certain level. 
    What happens is that a higher proportion of organic phosphate causes a shift of "algae" population such that the proportion of dino becomes much greater. That's the dino outbreak. 

    At the end its semantics, but shifts or trigger can happen at low or high organics.

    Good write-up btw, dont see anything other than classified posts on the forum, so this is great.

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  11. N and P are both needed for all sort of algae to grow. Just that different algae have different(additional) mechanism to uptake the said nitrates and phosphate. For example, cyanobacteria can fix dissolved nitrogen.  On the other hand,  many species of dino takes up organic phosphates effectively.  
    P. S.  The first cited article also show how the nutrients level of the system can affect the proliferation of some species of algae. 

    Yes thats my point. Does not matter whether organics are high or not for them to trigger.

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  12. Not directly, no. But it can adsorb dissolved organic compounds, leave less available for dinos or cyanos.  One has to realize it's unlikely going to be a situation of quick resolution.  Dino and cyanos are extremely adaptive, and share many similarity with bacteria and algae alike. so an aggressive approach can also disrupt the other parts of the ecosystem. It's the deliberate shift in the aquarium enviroment which work for me every time. 

    You said dinos and cyanos decreased your ORP levels earlier ?

    Heres a study that phosphates enhance the growth of toxic dinos


    Heres a study that shows uptake of organic and inorganic N on Ostreopsis- the kind that we usually deal with in our tanks


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  13. This is thru my observation and testing in my aquarium. In every instance of cyano and dino occurance, my aquarium have low orp levels,  likely indicating that organic levels in the aquarium is high. Taking measures to address these organics,  for example thru the use of enzymes, or by increasing the amount of activated carbon, has significantly reduce these growth. 
    Same goes for brown algae,  I observe the algae growth is more "brown" rather than "green" when the phosphate level is higher. And when the nitrate level is elevated, I do see more green algae. 
    So these are my observations. Not conclusive of course, but I think it's something worth considering 

    Okay want clear that it was just based your own ancedotal observation. If you looked at orp, you could also argue that maybr dinos/cyano causes reduced oxygen levels . In my case I have not seen that happening though. Activated carbon has had no impact on cyanos or dinos.
    Also aside from just correllation how would you explain organics causing dinos?

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  14. Algae and Nutrients
    In the previous post, I discussed how reducing nutrients is not the key to algae management. But if we over-generalize and think that nutrients management is not important for algae control,  then we can't be further from the truth. 
    In order to apply grazing pressure on algae,  we need to introduce herbivores. But if these herbivores do not graze on the algal growth, then all is for naught. We reefers know well enough that fishes do have a preferences, as well as avoidance for centain food. Therefore,  getting the aquarium to grow predominantly the correct type of algae,  is the key to herbivorous control. 
    An example is the venerable yellow tang. Yellow tangs readily graze on green hair algae. It use the spade like teeth to cut the algae as it feed. However,  if an aquarium has a sudden disruption, and has an outbreak of cyanobacteria,  we can observe something interesting. When cyanobacteria covers the green hair algae, it's no longer palatable to yellow tangs,  and the grazing stops. 
    The Algae Bender 
    Therefore to keep a pristine aquarium, the aquarist need only to manipulate the algal population in the aquarium,  so that one or two species is dominant,  then ensure there is the corresponding herbivores to keep these algae in check. 
    So how do we manipulation algae population?  It's not as if we go around buying hair algae and bryopsis to throw inside the aquarium. 
    We do that by managing the nutrients. Nitrate and phosphate, in their organic and inorganic forms. Different nutrient level gives advantage to different algae.  Generally speaking,  higher organics contents gives rise to more bacteria-like algae such as cyano and dino; higher phosphate tends to courage growth of brown algae. 
    At the end of the day, manage the nutrient,  manage the algae. 

    This is not true. Where did you get the info that highrt organics trigger dinos, cyano and inorganics trigger brown algae?

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