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Chaeto Reactors compared to Algae Scrubbers


SantaMonica
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With more people wanting to use natural filtration for their tanks, we are going to look at the two main types of units that you can put on your system: Chaeto reactors (or "algae reactors") and algae turf scrubbers (ATS). We won’t be looking at refugiums however, since those have mostly a different purpose. This will be a multi-part post; the next post will start with the basics, so if you’d like anything in particular to be covered, let us know.
 

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Topics for discussion purposes : 

  • What's the ideal flow rate for ATS (eg. Flow rate per area of mesh media).?
  • What's the ideal flow rate for Chaeto reactor? (eg. flow rate per volume of the reactor). Else in general, high or low flow is better?

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In your experience does both remove p04 and n03 as well?

Certainly, that's what algae do. But the devil is in the details :)

Topics for discussion purposes

Thanks for those. You might think more is better, but there are other factors...

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  • 1 month later...

Chaeto Reactors compared to Algae Scrubbers, part 1 

All macroalgae operate basically the same, chemically. They all use light, photosynthetically, to absorb nutrients from the water (i.e., filtering) and to grow biomass. Just like trees. The differences between types of macroalgae are in the physical structure of the macroalgae growth and the way the structure affects nutrient absorption speed, which means filtering. Here are the main differences as far as aquarists are concerned:

Chaeto: Pronounced KAY-toe. Chaeto is the nickname for Chaetomorpha, and it looks like a green dishwasher cleaning pad. It has no "roots" and thus does not attach to solid surfaces. It grows in saltwater only, and is not eaten by many fish.

Green Hair Algae: Includes Cladophora "angel hair" and Ulva "Easter basket" types. It has "roots" which attach to solid surfaces. It grows in freshwater and saltwater, and is eaten by almost all herbivores.

Slime: A solid algal growth, bright green to brown to black in color, that attaches to solid surfaces but not very securely.

Chaeto Reactor: A device that has water running through it, with chaeto growing in it. Also known as an "algae reactor". A chaeto reactor does not allow air to enter; only water, and these reactors usually have a lid attached with screws to keep water in and air out.

Algae Scrubber: Also called a Turf Scrubber, or Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS). A device that allows air and water to interact to create a turbulent air/water interface like waves on a beach; it grows green hair algae or slime that attaches to solid surfaces. 

Reactors and scrubbers are different from refugiums; a refugium (“fuge”) is a space in a sump where macroalgae is placed, and a light is put over it. Refugiums have very slow flow, and very low light penetration, compared to reactors or scrubbers. You could modify a refugium to be a reactor, and with more mods you could make it a scrubber. But then it would no longer be a refugium.

All oceans, reefs, lakes and rivers are naturally filtered by photosynthesis. This means that algae does all the filtering of these waters. This is why algae is at the base of the entire aquatic food chain, and why algae biomass dwarfs the biomass of all aquatic animals combined. But for algae to absorb nutrients out of the water, the algae must grow. And to absorb nutrients faster, the algae must grow faster. 

Next we will look at what makes different types of macroalgae absorb nutrients differently.
 

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Chaeto is commonly used in marine for nutrient export as it doesn't turn sexual and they grow very fast , which helps in nutrient export


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If the purpose is to drop no3 and phosphate won't any aquatic plant do?

The answer is speed. Plants are slow, and that's why you see algae grown right on top of them. Will cover this later.

Chaeto is commonly used in marine for nutrient export as it doesn't turn sexual and they grow very fast, which helps in nutrient export

The sexual part is correct, but chaeto is actually a slow grower which I will cover.


 

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If the purpose is to drop no3 and phosphate won't any aquatic plant do?

The answer is speed. Plants are slow, and that's why you see algae grown right on top of them. Will cover this later.

Chaeto is commonly used in marine for nutrient export as it doesn't turn sexual and they grow very fast, which helps in nutrient export

The sexual part is correct, but chaeto is actually a slow grower which I will cover.

 


My cheato grew v fast when no3 was high. But once no3 was handled and I cleared like 3/4 of them for regrowth, algae took over. So the author's info so far has basis.

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  • 4 weeks later...

Chaeto Reactors compared to Algae Scrubbers, part 2


Now for some basic differences; more detailed differences will be in subsequent posts. 

The first and maybe most important difference is that chaeto reactors grow only in saltwater (fish only, or fish with live rock, or reef) whereas algae scrubbers grow (filter) in both saltwater and freshwater. Growing = filtering. But even if you are exclusively freshwater, understanding the differences between reactors and scrubbers enables you to optimize a system for your tank. There have not been any experiments of chaeto in brackish water however.

A second difference is size; a chaeto reactor needs to be much larger than an algae scrubber. Many saltwater tanks have large sumps, and even dedicated fish rooms, so this may not be an issue. Through experiential results of individual aquarists running chaeto reactors over the last few years, and through many thousands of aquarists running algae scrubbers over the last ten years, it has been observed that a chaeto reactor needs to be 4 to 8 times the physical size of an algae scrubber to provide the same rate of filtering capacity (rate of nutrient removal).

A third difference is seeding; a chaeto reactor needs to be seeded with a small amount of chaeto, either from another aquarium, reactor, or from your last harvest (i.e., you don’t harvest all of it), whereas an algae scrubber will self-seed from invisible algal cells in the water. When self-seeding, algae scrubbers usually start out with a slime type of growth, and this sometimes progresses on to a green hair algae growth, depending on the nutrients in the water.

A fourth difference is in how you clean (harvest). For a chaeto reactor, you disassemble the reactor usually by unscrewing several screws on the top of the container, and then by pulling out a tube or frame from the container; the chaeto growth is then removed from the frame and the frame is replaced back into the container, and the lid and screws are put back into place. Since chaeto does not attach to a surface, you often get broken chaeto pieces that flow into your tank or sump when you harvest; a filter screen in the reactor can reduce this.

For an algae scrubber, cleaning (harvesting) varies on what design it is; freshwater versions will usually be taken to a sink for the cleaning because of the thin and slimy growth (saltwater versions can also be cleaned in a sink, but are sometimes harvested in-place). A horizontal river design will have a light that you lift up off of the container, and a screen that you remove from the container. A waterfall design will have a screen that you remove from a pipe; sometimes the whole pipe is removed, and sometimes the pipe is in a container that you need to open first. A bubble upflow design has at least part of the container under water, which you lift out of the water. And for all algae scrubbers, since the growth is attached to a surface, broken floating algae pieces are not common when you harvest on a proper schedule. Bubble upflow scrubbers almost never detach because the growth is supported by the water.

A fifth difference is fish feeding; by feeding your fish from the growth, the fish eat naturally and you don’t have to buy and add food to the water (which creates nutrients). Very few if any aquarium animals eat chaeto, so the only option is to remove the chaeto and either throw it away or give it to a friend. For algae scrubbers, it depends on the growth: Slime (although full of absorbed nutrients from the water) is usually not eaten by aquarium fish and thus is scraped off and thrown away or used as garden fertilizer. Green hair algae however is eaten by almost all herbivore fish and many snails (it’s their nature food), and thus some of the growth can be fed back to the fish, especially in freshwater where algae scrubbers almost always grow this type of growth. 

A sixth difference is overgrowth of algae on the lights. Chaeto reactors usually have a large surface area light (such as a long coiled light strip), and the illumination from these is not enough to “burn” off algae growth on the surface of the clear wall (this growth reduces illumination output). So you will need to clean these glass surfaces in order to keep the illumination at full output. Most algae scrubbers however use discrete (separate) high power LEDs which produce enough illumination in a small space to burn off algal growth on glass surfaces; for these you do not need to wipe the growth off because it does not grow there.

A last difference is overgrowth of algae on the algae itself. Chaeto is a slow growing species of algae because of it’s thick cellular structure, and if conditions favor faster growing algae you will get green hair algae which attaches on top of the chaeto, causing the chaeto to be blocked from light and flow, and eventually causing the chaeto to die and rot. There is no easy way to wipe green hair algae from chaeto; the chaeto must just be harvested earlier instead. For algae scrubbers, green hair algal growth on top of more green hair growth is how scrubbers operate in the first place, so earlier harvesting is not needed.
 

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  • 2 months later...

You should gather some data on the relative nutrient uptake rate. Take water from a high nutrient tank. Run the two set ups and a third control (just water in a dark container). Collect water samples and test nitrates n phosphates every 4 hours. Use the same lighting and same flow rates for all set up.

I believe lighting is actually the most important factor. Because. Photosynthesis.

Nonetheless. The biggest benefit of a ats is the most efficient use of surface area because you are growing algae vertically hence the growth wont cause as much self shading.

Cheato growth causes self shading. Cheato reactor tries to minimise that. Nice idea, But i rather just get a h380 set up. 

Biggest benefit of a typical refugium is the lower maintenance. Just get kessil h380 n a ball of cheato. Harvest once a while. Ezpz

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46 minutes ago, SantaMonica said:

Studies are not too useful with n too low. At least n=100. Otherwise it's just anecdotal. And I already have thousands of anecdotal reports over the last 10 years.

Can u substantiate the claim that ‘n’ being low will make it to be of ‘anecdotal’ quality? Please show me the maths :)

Also you are not drawing samples from a population...

Dont see how u need to use statistics in this simple experiment. The aim is rather to observe which setup reduces nutrients the fastest.

 

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  • 3 weeks later...

My understanding of "studies" is a scientific undertaking, which reduces noise and variables, so that the data of interest become valid. For just "simple" experiments, these are already plentiful across the web and forums.

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51 minutes ago, SantaMonica said:

My understanding of "studies" is a scientific undertaking, which reduces noise and variables, so that the data of interest become valid. For just "simple" experiments, these are already plentiful across the web and forums.

First, Why n=100? Please explain.

Second, could you kindly provide me with references(‘simple’ studies) that substantiate your claim that ats is superior to growing cheato for nutrient reduction? I do browse reefing forums quite abit...would love to see one with at least a control.

Lastly, you dont always get to choose what variables are in play especially in biology. U deal with them. Thats why...u have a control.

Is reducing variables always desirable? U can investigate more than one variable and establish controls for that...

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  • 1 month later...

In statistics, "n" needs to be a sizable number, so that the other variations cancel out. This is why surveys are done on thousands of people, not five.

The simple experiments I mention are just hobbyists, with n=1 for each person. But there have been many over the last ten years. I did not keep a list of them, sorry.

 

 

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